( Free ) ☢ The Horse in Celtic Culture: Medieval Welsh Perspectives ⚖ MOBI eBook or Kindle ePUB free

This is a set of essays on the horse, written by some VERY influential scholars It differs from my approach in that it tries to make statements about the horse itself, not perceptions of the horse Articles included Miranda Aldhouse Green, The Symbolic Horse in Pagan Celtic Europe An Archaeological Perspective pp 1 22Irene Hughson, Horses in the Early Historic Period Evidence from the Pictish Sculptured Stones, pp23 42Patricia Kelly, The Earliest Words for Horse in the Celtic Languages, pp4 This is a set of essays on the horse, written by some VERY influential scholars It differs from my approach in that it tries to make statements about the horse itself, not perceptions of the horse Articles included Miranda Aldhouse Green, The Symbolic Horse in Pagan Celtic Europe An Archaeological Perspective pp 1 22Irene Hughson, Horses in the Early Historic Period Evidence from the Pictish Sculptured Stones, pp23 42Patricia Kelly, The Earliest Words for Horse in the Celtic Languages, pp43 63Dafydd Jenkins The horse in the welsh law texts pp64 81Nerys Ann Jones Horses in Medieval Welsh Court Poetry pp82 101Rachel Bronwich Triads of the Horses, p102 120Sioned Davies Horses in the Mabinogion 121 140Bleddyn Owen Huws Praise lasts longer than a horse poems of request and thanks for horses pp141 1614 quotes Uffington Beast Of the fourteen or so hill figures of white horses carved in the chalk of the Wessex downlands, only one, the Uffington White Hors, has a genuine claim to Celtic antiquity The elegant, attenuated figure was varved high up on the escarpment just beneath the iron Age hill fort of Uffington Castle in Oxfordshire The animal is highly schematic, with a long body, disjointed legs and a curious beaked head It has been difficult to posit an accurate chronology for the horse, but it pre dates the twelfth century since it is mentioned in references going back to 1084 Stylistically, the horse appears to belong to the later Iron Age, bearing close resemblances to Celtic horse images on coins and to a bronze horse model from Silchester, not far from Uffington Recent investigations by the Oxford Archaeological Unit support an early date for the Uffington White Horse Whilst the traditional view is that it was perhaps carved by the Atrebates in about 50BC as a tribal emblem designed to protect the tribe and its terrioty Woolner, 1965 Petrie, 1926, Grinsell, 1958, 149 50, pl Viii, Palmer 1990 Green 1995a it should be noted that the latest research on the uffington Horse Miles and Palmer, 1995 suggests that the image may have been carved as early as the Late Bronze Age c.900BC early horses were not ponies Its whole appearance is at varience with the idea that the only horses available in Britain in the Early Historic period were little shaggy creatures, like Exmoors or large Shetlands Thomas, 1971, 124 Exmoors and Shetlands, which look very different from each other in most respects, do indeed have thick winter coats, which could certainly be described as shaggy They look sleeker in the summer, but they always have fetlocks which neither the Inverurie horse nor any of the later Pictish horses have Shetland ponies have particularly thick manes and forelocks another characteristic not shared by any of the sculptured horses or ponies Horseback hunting Hunting on horseback is the classic high status activity, rarely, if ever, undertaken to produce food There have always been fareffiecient ways of bringing down game Hunting on horseback, however, provided opportunities to display martial qualities boldness and daring, good horsemanship, expertise with the spear and bow without as many risks as a real military encournter It allowed men to display their good horses, decorated harness and personal finery, again without the risk of losing them all The organiser of the hunt could strengthen the bonds of kinship through inviting others to join in and through hospitality before and after Hunting displayed the extent of a chiefton s domination of an area Mari Llwyd folklore the Mari Lwyd is the most common name for a dramatic winter custom in which a horse skull draped in a sheet is carried from house to house accompanied by a group of men, one of whom operates the horse At each house there is a competitive interchange of sung verses between those outside and those inside The Mari Lwyd s entrance is followed by wassailing, dancing, broad humourous interchanges and sometimes mumming The outsiders are initially caught in a liminal state As transitional beings they often exhibit specific behaviours or are marked by special suymbols In the Mari Lwyd, converntional names mask the reveller s identities, while the white grey colour spectrum indicates the supernatural Crossing the boundary is marked by celebration, the entrance of the Mari Lwyd is followed by feasting, drinking and clowning This paradoxically reaffirms the integrity of the boundary and the safeyy of the group shielded by it The hors appears to be the agent which can cross the interstice ( Free ) ⚖ The Horse in Celtic Culture: Medieval Welsh Perspectives ☪ Ever since its domestication, the horse has played a central role in the history of mankind This multifunctional animal was responsible for revolutionizing transportation and fighting techniques, which led ultimately to significant social, economic and cultural changes Horses in Celtic Culture examines a fascinating topic that to date has received very little attentio Touch Not the Cat the horse has played a central role in the history of mankind This multifunctional animal was responsible for revolutionizing transportation and fighting techniques The Charmer’s Box which led ultimately to significant social The Charmer’s Box: Poetry economic and cultural changes Horses in Celtic Culture examines a fascinating topic that to date has received very little attentio